General Nickel and its alloys are renowned for their high corrosion resistance and their ability to withstand high temperatures (up to 1’200°C (2’200°F) for some alloys). In its commercially pure form, nickel is primarily used in the manufacture of caustic soda, in the electronics and food industries, and for plating. Nickel-copper alloys, such as Monel®, provide excellent cavitation and corrosion resistance in reducing environments and salt water. This makes them especially suited for marine applications, chemical industry equipment, hydrocarbon processing, heat exchangers and plumbing hardware and fittings, since they are easy to form and machine. Nickel-chromium-iron alloys, such as Inconel®, … Continue reading WELDING NICKEL ALLOYS


Hardfacing is a technique that consists of depositing a hard layer to resist abrasion, erosion, scaling, high temperatures, cavitation and wear. Hardfacing is therefore a way to increase the lifetime of certain pieces in an economical manner. Building-up, on the other hand, is an operation to restore the dimensional form to a work piece. The properties of the base metal chemical composition, melting point, coefficient of thermal expansion, microstructure, etc., influence the welding procedure. The main requirements that determine and limit the choice of the process are that it must minimize dilution while maintaining as high a deposition rate as … Continue reading HARDFACING COMPLETE


General Magnesium and its alloys are used in the automotive, aerospace and computer industries, and in the manufacture of apparatus for which light weight is a major factor like mechanical saws, mowers and certain hand tools. Magnesium is used for its light weight, its density is one quarter that of steel and two thirds that of aluminum. Moreover it has good atmospheric corrosion resistance and high mechanical strength. Magnesium alloys are weldable using the GTAW, GMAW and even OFW processes with the help of Sodel 0681 flux. Some alloys weld better than others, but an acceptable weld can be made … Continue reading MAGNESIUM ALLOYS


Sodel 512Plus electrodes can be quickly and easily cut, chamfer, gouge and pierce parts made of steel, cast iron, copper, etc. With this electrode you can make holes of varying diameter, depending on diameter of the electrode itself and the intensity of the current used. The advantage of using this electrode is that, unlike the carbon electrode process, you do not need an air compressor to blow out the melted metal. The electrode can be used with a DC or AC welding station. It will contaminate the base metal much less than a standard carbon gouging electrode. To make a … Continue reading CUTTING ELECTRODE


General Copper alloys are used for a wide range of applications. They can be found in architectural de corations, household appliances, the electronics, marine, and chemical industries, etc. Such popularity is due to their excellent electrical and thermal conductivity, high corrosion resistance, easy formability and good tensile strength and fatigue limit. Other characteristics, such as their spark resistance and distinctive color put them in a special family of alloys. Classification Copper is often alloyed with several types of metals. The most common alloy elements are aluminum, nickel, silicon, tin and zinc. Other elements are also added in small amounts to … Continue reading WELDING COPPER ALLOYS


General Brazing is a thermal method for permanently joining metallic parts. Brazing operations are characterized by the fact that the edges of the pieces to be joined are never brought to the liquid state. For this reason, the base metal must always have a higher melting point than the filler metal. Brazing is used to assemble hard to reach joints that are too difficult to weld. For thin pieces, brazing has a clear advantage since the thermal energy required for brazing is relatively low. Peak temperatures are therefore fairly low, thus keeping distortion and reduction of the piece’s mechanical properties … Continue reading BRAZING


Carbon steels are steels containing up to 2% carbon plus some other elements, most of which are present in small amounts, except for silicon (0,6%) and manganese (up to 1,6%) which are needed to de-oxidize the weld pool. These steels are also referred to as non-alloy steels. Carbon steel can be found in many applications since it is easy to shape, machine, weld and is very economical. In addition, its mechanical properties can easily be altered through various heat treatment processes (annealing, normalizing, hardening, etc.). Alloy steels contain significant amounts of alloy elements other than carbon, plus frequently-allowed amounts of … Continue reading BETTER UNDERSTANDING STEEL FOR ITS WELDING

The features and weldability of Nitronic alloys

Nitronic alloys, as their name suggests, consist of a series of nitrogen-bearing austenitic stainless steels. The company Armco Steel before this registered trademark (trade name) becomes the property of AK Steel since 2000 developed the first grade, namely Nitronic 40, in 1961. The chemical composition of the main alloys of this series is presented in the table below. CHARACTERISATION Nitronic have quite different properties than those of austenitic stainless steels such as usual grades (e.g. 304, 316L, CF3, CF8M, etc). Thus, the typical properties of these alloys are presented below : very high mechanical strength with a ratio strength/density of … Continue reading The features and weldability of Nitronic alloys


General Stainless steels are steels alloyed with chromium to improve their corrosion resistance in different environments. Chromium in the stainless steel oxides easily but the thin oxide layer that forms is corrosion resistant, durable and stable. It forms a barrier that prevents corrosive products from oxidizing the alloy (see stainless steel 1 diagram). To be considered stainless, a steel must contain a minimum of 10% chromium. AISI stainless steel classification method SERIES CATEGORY MAIN ALLOY ELEMENTS TEMPERED MAGNETIC 2XX Austenitic Cr-Ni-Mn No No 3XX Austenitic Cr-Ni No No 4XX Ferritic Cr No Yes 4XX Martensitic Cr Yes Yes 5XX Martensitic … Continue reading STAINLESS STEEL AND THEIR WELDABILITY


General The steels used to manufacture tools usually contain high amounts of alloy elements. These elements are added to improve properties specific to their working conditions through cutting, forming, stamping, rolling, extruding or other operations. The main alloy elements employed are carbon, manganese, chromium, molybdenum, tungsten, vanadium, silicon, cobalt, copper and nickel. Classification The classification method used by both the AISI (American Iron and Steel Institute) and the SAE (Society of Automotive Engineers) is the most widely used system for distinguishing the various tool steels. This system is based either on the quenching medium or the working conditions. The following … Continue reading WELDING OF TOOL STEEL